🍽️ mesna,(prescription)

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  1. Protection Against Hemorrhagic Cystitis: Mesna is most commonly used to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and bleeding in the bladder, which can occur as a side effect of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Mesna works by binding to toxic metabolites of these chemotherapy drugs, preventing them from damaging the bladder lining and reducing the risk of hemorrhagic cystitis.

  2. Chemoprotective Effects: Mesna acts as a chemoprotective agent by detoxifying acrolein, a toxic metabolite produced during the metabolism of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide. By binding to acrolein, mesna prevents it from causing damage to the bladder tissues, thereby preserving bladder function and reducing the severity of urinary tract toxicity associated with these chemotherapy agents.

  3. Prevention of Bladder Toxicity: Mesna administration before and during chemotherapy treatment helps mitigate the risk of developing bladder toxicity, including hemorrhagic cystitis, bladder inflammation, and urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria (painful urination) and hematuria (blood in the urine). By protecting the bladder mucosa, mesna helps maintain urinary tract health during cancer treatment.

  4. Enhanced Chemotherapy Tolerance: By reducing the incidence and severity of chemotherapy-induced side effects such as hemorrhagic cystitis, mesna improves patients' tolerance to ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide regimens. This allows for the continuation of chemotherapy treatment without interruption or dose reduction, potentially improving treatment outcomes for cancer patients.

  5. Administration Route: Mesna is typically administered intravenously (IV) or orally, depending on the specific chemotherapy regimen and clinical circumstances. Intravenous mesna is often given as a bolus injection or infusion alongside ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, while oral mesna may be prescribed as tablets or a liquid formulation for prophylactic use.

  6. Adverse Effects: Mesna is generally well-tolerated, with mild and transient side effects reported infrequently. Common adverse effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and injection site reactions (with IV administration). These side effects are usually mild and resolve spontaneously or with supportive care.

  7. Monitoring: Patients receiving mesna-containing chemotherapy regimens require regular monitoring of kidney function, urine output, and signs of bladder irritation or toxicity. Periodic assessments, including urine analysis and renal function tests, help detect early signs of bladder inflammation or hemorrhagic cystitis, allowing for timely intervention and management.

  8. Contraindications: Mesna is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to mesna or any component of the formulation. Caution is advised in patients with preexisting kidney disease or impaired renal function, as mesna is primarily excreted by the kidneys and may require dose adjustment in this population.

  9. Pregnancy and Lactation: The safety of mesna use during pregnancy and breastfeeding has not been well-established. Pregnant or breastfeeding individuals should consult their healthcare provider before initiating mesna therapy, and the potential risks and benefits should be carefully weighed.

  10. Drug Interactions: Mesna may interact with certain medications, including other chemotherapy drugs and nephrotoxic agents, potentially altering their efficacy or toxicity profiles. Patients should inform their healthcare provider about all medications, supplements, and herbal products they are taking before starting mesna therapy.


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Data Contradictions β€” Limits of Certainity

Impacted of mesna,(prescription) On Probiotics

Rank Probiotic Impact
species Escherichia coli Reduces
species Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Reduces

Bacteria Impacted by mesna,(prescription)

We extend modifiers to include items that changes the parent and child taxa. I.e. for a species, that would be the genus that is belongs to and the strains in the species.


Taxonomy Rank Effect Citations Notation
Bilophila genus Decreases 👪 Source Study High Level Cause Brain Fog(Cognitive impairment)
Escherichia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Mediterraneibacter genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Agathobacter genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Bacteroides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Coprococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Phocaeicola genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Parabacteroides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study BMI, fat percent,blood pressure
Segatella genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Streptococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Fusobacterium genus Decreases 👪 Source Study Periodontal disease, Lemierre syndrome, skin ulcers
unclassified Robinsoniella no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Escherichia coli O80:H26 no rank Decreases 👶 Source Study
unclassified Fusobacterium no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Negativicoccus no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Eggerthellales order Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Escherichia coli O145 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O157 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O26 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O43 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O1:H42 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O104:H4 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O121:H19 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O127:H6 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O139:H28 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O157:H7 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study bloody diarrhea
Escherichia coli O44:H18 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O55:H7 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O6:H16 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O7:K1 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Bilophila wadsworthia species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Escherichia coli species Decreases 📓 Source Study Diarrheal disease in children and travelers, Foodborne diarrhea outbreaks, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome
Bacteroides ovatus species Decreases 📓 Source Study
[Ruminococcus] gnavus species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Agathobacter rectalis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Coprococcus comes species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Anaerofustis stercorihominis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Asaccharospora irregularis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Phocaeicola vulgatus species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Parabacteroides merdae species Decreases 📓 Source Study Infectious bacteria
Segatella copri species Decreases 📓 Source Study Over 70%ile Indicator of mycotoxin present
Negativicoccus sp. S5-A15 species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Paraprevotella clara species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Slackia sp. NATTS species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Bacteroides uniformis species Decreases 📓 Source Study Infectious bacteria
Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
[Collinsella] massiliensis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Parvibacter caecicola species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Streptococcus parasanguinis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Fusobacterium nucleatum species Decreases 📓 Source Study Infectious bacteria
Streptococcus salivarius species Decreases 📓 Source Study Infectious bacteria
Coriobacterineae suborder Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia group superphylum Decreases ⚗️ Source Study

Impact of mesna,(prescription) on Conditions from US National Library of Medicine

A higher number indicates impact on more bacteria associated with the condition and confidence on the impact.

We have X bacteria high and Y low reported. We find that the modifier reduces some and increases other of these two groups. We just tally: X|reduces + Y|Increase = Positive   X|increases + Y|decrease = Negative.

Benefit Ratio:
Numbers above 0 have increasing positive effect.
Numbers below 0 have increasing negative effect.

Condition Positive Impact Negative Impact Benefit Ratio Impact
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 0.4 0.4
ADHD 0.9 0.1 8
Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Glaucoma 0.1 -0.1
Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 1 1
Allergies 0.5 0.2 1.5
Allergy to milk products 0.7 0.4 0.75
Alzheimer's disease 0.9 1.6 -0.78
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Motor Neuron 0.4 0.5 -0.25
Ankylosing spondylitis 1 0.6 0.67
Anorexia Nervosa 0.1 0.3 -2
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 0.6 0.4 0.5
Asthma 0.2 -0.2
Atherosclerosis 0 0
Atrial fibrillation 0.6 1.1 -0.83
Autism 1.5 1.8 -0.2
Barrett esophagus cancer 0 0 0
benign prostatic hyperplasia 0.3 0.3
Bipolar Disorder 1 0.1 9
Brain Trauma 0.2 -0.2
Carcinoma 1 0.2 4
Celiac Disease 0.9 0.7 0.29
Cerebral Palsy 0 0.2 0
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 1.5 0.9 0.67
Chronic Kidney Disease 1 0.4 1.5
Chronic Lyme 0.2 -0.2
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 0.2 0.1 1
Chronic Urticaria (Hives) 0.9 0.2 3.5
Coagulation / Micro clot triggering bacteria 0.9 0 0
Colorectal Cancer 1.2 0.2 5
Constipation 0.6 0.6
Coronary artery disease 0.6 0.1 5
COVID-19 1.9 1.7 0.12
Crohn's Disease 2.3 0.7 2.29
cystic fibrosis 0.8 0.2 3
deep vein thrombosis 0.8 0 0
Depression 1.4 1.8 -0.29
Dermatomyositis 0 0
Eczema 0.7 0.1 6
Endometriosis 1.2 1.2
Eosinophilic Esophagitis 0 0
Epilepsy 0.5 0.4 0.25
Fibromyalgia 0.3 0.7 -1.33
Functional constipation / chronic idiopathic constipation 1.7 0.4 3.25
gallstone disease (gsd) 0.4 0 0
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Gerd) including Barrett's esophagus 0.2 0 0
Generalized anxiety disorder 1.3 0.3 3.33
Glioblastoma 0 0
Gout 0.1 -0.1
Graves' disease 0.2 0.2
Halitosis 0.2 0 0
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 0.2 0.6 -2
Hidradenitis Suppurativa 0.5 0.5
Histamine Issues,Mast Cell Issue, DAO Insufficiency 0.9 0.4 1.25
hyperglycemia 0.3 0.2 0.5
hypersomnia 0.4 -0.4
hypertension (High Blood Pressure 0.5 0.8 -0.6
Hypothyroidism 0.1 -0.1
Hypoxia 0.2 0.2
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) 1.2 -1.2
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1.5 0.9 0.67
Insomnia 0.2 0.2 0
Intelligence 0.3 0.2 0.5
Intracranial aneurysms 0.2 0.2
Irritable Bowel Syndrome 1 1 0
Liver Cirrhosis 1.1 0.8 0.38
Long COVID 1.6 1 0.6
Low bone mineral density 0.1 -0.1
Lung Cancer 0.3 0.3
ME/CFS with IBS 0 0.4 0
ME/CFS without IBS 0.6 0.2 2
Menopause 0.5 0.5
Metabolic Syndrome 2.1 1.2 0.75
Mood Disorders 2 1.8 0.11
multiple chemical sensitivity [MCS] 0.1 0.1
Multiple Sclerosis 0.7 0.8 -0.14
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) 0.1 0.1
Neuropathy (all types) 0 0.3 0
neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS, PANS) 0.5 0.5
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (nafld) Nonalcoholic 0.5 0.6 -0.2
Obesity 1.6 0.7 1.29
obsessive-compulsive disorder 1.9 1 0.9
Osteoarthritis 0.9 0.9
Osteoporosis 0.4 0.2 1
pancreatic cancer 0 0
Parkinson's Disease 1.2 0.6 1
Polycystic ovary syndrome 0.7 0.7
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 0.1 -0.1
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder 0.1 -0.1
primary biliary cholangitis 0.1 -0.1
Psoriasis 0.6 0.5 0.2
rheumatoid arthritis (RA),Spondyloarthritis (SpA) 1.8 0.3 5
Schizophrenia 0.9 0.1 8
scoliosis 0.1 0.4 -3
Sjögren syndrome 0.6 0.5 0.2
Sleep Apnea 0.1 0.3 -2
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) 0.6 0.6
Stress / posttraumatic stress disorder 0.8 0.3 1.67
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 1.6 1.6
Tic Disorder 0.2 0.2 0
Tourette syndrome 0.2 -0.2
Type 1 Diabetes 1.6 0.2 7
Type 2 Diabetes 2.3 1.3 0.77
Ulcerative colitis 1.1 1.8 -0.64
Unhealthy Ageing 1.4 0.4 2.5

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