🍽️ acetazolamide,(prescription)

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  1. Diuretic Effect: Acetazolamide is primarily known as a diuretic medication. It inhibits the activity of carbonic anhydrase in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys, leading to increased excretion of bicarbonate ions and sodium, resulting in diuresis (increased urine production). This effect is useful in conditions where diuresis is desired, such as in the treatment of edema (fluid retention) or in the prevention and treatment of altitude sickness.

  2. Treatment of Glaucoma: Acetazolamide is also used in the treatment of certain types of glaucoma, such as open-angle glaucoma and secondary glaucoma. By reducing the production of aqueous humor within the eye, acetazolamide helps lower intraocular pressure, which is a key factor in the progression of glaucoma.

  3. Altitude Sickness Prevention: Acetazolamide is commonly used as a prophylactic medication to prevent altitude sickness (acute mountain sickness) in individuals ascending to high altitudes rapidly. It works by increasing ventilation and stimulating respiratory alkalosis, which helps alleviate the symptoms of altitude sickness, such as headache, nausea, and fatigue.

  4. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Acetazolamide may be prescribed for the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure without an identifiable cause. By reducing cerebrospinal fluid production, acetazolamide helps alleviate symptoms such as headaches and visual disturbances.

  5. Metabolic Alkalosis: Acetazolamide can be used to treat metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an elevated blood pH due to excess bicarbonate ions. By inhibiting renal bicarbonate reabsorption, acetazolamide promotes bicarbonate excretion, thereby correcting metabolic alkalosis and restoring acid-base balance.

  6. Acute Mountain Sickness: In addition to its prophylactic use, acetazolamide may also be used to treat acute mountain sickness in individuals already experiencing symptoms at high altitudes. It helps alleviate symptoms and improve oxygenation by increasing ventilation and reducing cerebral edema.

  7. Side Effects: Common side effects of acetazolamide may include gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, tingling sensation in the extremities (paresthesia), and drowsiness. These side effects are often mild and transient, but patients should be monitored for signs of electrolyte imbalances or metabolic disturbances.

  8. Contraindications: Acetazolamide is contraindicated in individuals with known hypersensitivity to sulfonamides or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, severe liver or kidney disease, electrolyte imbalances (e.g., hypokalemia, hyponatremia), and certain metabolic conditions (e.g., hyperchloremic acidosis). It should be used with caution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or respiratory acidosis.

  9. Interactions: Acetazolamide may interact with other medications, such as lithium, digoxin, and certain antiepileptic drugs, potentially affecting their efficacy or toxicity. Patients should be advised to inform their healthcare providers about all medications, supplements, and herbal products they are taking to avoid potential drug interactions.

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Data Contradictions β€” Limits of Certainity

Impacted of acetazolamide,(prescription) On Probiotics

Rank Probiotic Impact
species Escherichia coli Reduces
species Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Reduces

Bacteria Impacted by acetazolamide,(prescription)

We extend modifiers to include items that changes the parent and child taxa. I.e. for a species, that would be the genus that is belongs to and the strains in the species.

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Taxonomy Rank Effect Citations Notation
Escherichia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Ruminococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Lachnospira genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Bacteroides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Clostridioides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Parabacteroides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study BMI, fat percent,blood pressure
Lacticaseibacillus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Coprococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Escherichia coli O80:H26 no rank Decreases 👶 Source Study
unclassified Robinsoniella no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Fusobacterium no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Negativicoccus no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Eggerthellales order Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Escherichia coli O145 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O157 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O26 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O43 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O1:H42 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O104:H4 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O121:H19 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O127:H6 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O139:H28 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O157:H7 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study bloody diarrhea
Escherichia coli O44:H18 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O55:H7 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O6:H16 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O7:K1 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli species Decreases 📓 Source Study Diarrheal disease in children and travelers, Foodborne diarrhea outbreaks, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome
Ruminococcus bromii species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Lachnospira eligens species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bacteroides ovatus species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bacteroides xylanisolvens species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Clostridioides difficile species Decreases 📓 Source Study Colitis
Parabacteroides distasonis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Anaerofustis stercorihominis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Asaccharospora irregularis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Negativicoccus sp. S5-A15 species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Paraprevotella clara species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Bacteroides fragilis species Decreases 📓 Source Study H02076 Bacteroides infection
Slackia sp. NATTS species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
[Collinsella] massiliensis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Parvibacter caecicola species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Coprococcus comes species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Coriobacterineae suborder Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia group superphylum Decreases ⚗️ Source Study

Impact of acetazolamide,(prescription) on Conditions from US National Library of Medicine

A higher number indicates impact on more bacteria associated with the condition and confidence on the impact.

We have X bacteria high and Y low reported. We find that the modifier reduces some and increases other of these two groups. We just tally: X|reduces + Y|Increase = Positive   X|increases + Y|decrease = Negative.

Benefit Ratio:
Numbers above 0 have increasing positive effect.
Numbers below 0 have increasing negative effect.

Condition Positive Impact Negative Impact Benefit Ratio Impact
ADHD 1 0 0
Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Glaucoma 0.1 -0.1
Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 0.7 0.7
Allergies 1.3 0.6 1.17
Allergy to milk products 1.3 0.5 1.6
Alopecia (Hair Loss) 0.2 0.2
Alzheimer's disease 1.2 1 0.2
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Motor Neuron 1.2 1.1 0.09
Ankylosing spondylitis 1.4 0.9 0.56
Anorexia Nervosa 0.1 0.9 -8
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 0.8 0.8
Asthma 0.2 -0.2
Atherosclerosis 0.3 0.3
Atrial fibrillation 1 0.7 0.43
Autism 1.4 2.1 -0.5
benign prostatic hyperplasia 0.4 0.4
Bipolar Disorder 1 0.3 2.33
Brain Trauma 0.2 -0.2
Cancer (General) 0.1 -0.1
Carcinoma 1 0.7 0.43
Celiac Disease 1 1 0
Cerebral Palsy 0.5 -0.5
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 2.7 0.5 4.4
Chronic Kidney Disease 0.7 0.3 1.33
Chronic Lyme 0.2 -0.2
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 0.3 -0.3
Chronic Urticaria (Hives) 1.2 0.2 5
Coagulation / Micro clot triggering bacteria 1.3 0.3 3.33
Colorectal Cancer 2 2
Constipation 0.9 0.9
Coronary artery disease 0.3 0 0
COVID-19 2.4 2.4 0
Crohn's Disease 2 1.8 0.11
cystic fibrosis 1.2 0.2 5
deep vein thrombosis 1.2 0.3 3
Depression 1.9 1.2 0.58
Eczema 0.4 0.2 1
Endometriosis 1.5 0.6 1.5
Epilepsy 0.8 0.3 1.67
Fibromyalgia 0.1 0.2 -1
Functional constipation / chronic idiopathic constipation 2.9 0.4 6.25
gallstone disease (gsd) 0.8 0.8
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Gerd) including Barrett's esophagus 0.2 0.2
Generalized anxiety disorder 1.2 0.2 5
Gout 0 0
Graves' disease 0.3 0.3
Halitosis 0.2 0.2
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 0.2 0.2 0
Histamine Issues 1.3 1.3
hyperglycemia 0.4 0.3 0.33
hypertension (High Blood Pressure 1 0.4 1.5
Hypothyroidism 0 0
Hypoxia 0.3 0.3
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) 1.2 -1.2
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1.5 1.9 -0.27
Insomnia 0.2 0.5 -1.5
Intelligence 0 0
Intracranial aneurysms 0.7 0.7
Irritable Bowel Syndrome 1.7 1.3 0.31
Liver Cirrhosis 1.1 0.6 0.83
Long COVID 1.1 2.2 -1
Low bone mineral density 0.3 -0.3
Lung Cancer 0.4 0.3 0.33
Mast Cell Issues / mastitis 0.4 0.3 0.33
ME/CFS with IBS 0.2 -0.2
ME/CFS without IBS 0.1 0.5 -4
Menopause 0.6 0.6
Metabolic Syndrome 2 0.8 1.5
Mood Disorders 2.2 1.2 0.83
Multiple Sclerosis 0.4 1.7 -3.25
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) 0.3 -0.3
neuropathic pain 0.5 -0.5
Neuropathy (all types) 0.4 -0.4
neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS, PANS) 0.8 0.8
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (nafld) Nonalcoholic 0.4 0.9 -1.25
Obesity 1.1 0.8 0.38
obsessive-compulsive disorder 3.6 0.2 17
Osteoarthritis 0.6 0.3 1
Osteoporosis 0.9 0.2 3.5
Parkinson's Disease 0.9 1.2 -0.33
Polycystic ovary syndrome 1 0.6 0.67
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 0 0
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder 0.1 -0.1
Psoriasis 1.2 0.6 1
rheumatoid arthritis (RA),Spondyloarthritis (SpA) 1.4 0.4 2.5
Rosacea 0.3 0.3
Schizophrenia 1 0.3 2.33
scoliosis 0 0.9 0
Sjögren syndrome 0.5 0.3 0.67
Sleep Apnea 0.3 0.2 0.5
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) 0.8 0.8
Stress / posttraumatic stress disorder 1.1 0.2 4.5
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 0.9 0.6 0.5
Tic Disorder 0.3 0.3
Tourette syndrome 0.2 -0.2
Type 1 Diabetes 1.7 0.3 4.67
Type 2 Diabetes 2 1.6 0.25
Ulcerative colitis 1.4 1 0.4
Unhealthy Ageing 0.8 0 0

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