🍽️ zaprinast non-drug

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  1. Phosphodiesterase Inhibition: Zaprinast inhibits the activity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), an enzyme that breaks down cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). By inhibiting PDE5, zaprinast increases the levels of cGMP in cells, leading to relaxation of smooth muscle cells and vasodilation.

  2. Vasodilatory Effects: The primary physiological effect of zaprinast is vasodilation, particularly in blood vessels supplying the lungs (pulmonary arteries). This vasodilatory effect can help to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and improve blood flow in conditions such as pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension: Zaprinast has been investigated for its potential therapeutic use in pulmonary hypertension, a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. By dilating pulmonary blood vessels, zaprinast may help to alleviate symptoms and improve exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Smooth Muscle Relaxation: In addition to its effects on pulmonary vasculature, zaprinast may also cause relaxation of smooth muscle cells in other parts of the body, such as the urinary bladder and gastrointestinal tract. This relaxation may have potential applications in the treatment of conditions involving smooth muscle spasm or hyperactivity.

  5. Experimental Models: Zaprinast is commonly used in experimental models to study the physiological effects of phosphodiesterase inhibition and to investigate its potential therapeutic applications. Its effects are studied in cell cultures, animal models, and clinical trials to assess its efficacy and safety in different contexts.

  6. Clinical Applications: While zaprinast itself is not widely used clinically as a therapeutic agent, its pharmacological effects have inspired the development of other PDE5 inhibitors for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and erectile dysfunction. Drugs such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra) are more commonly used in clinical practice for these indications.

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Data Contradictions β€” Limits of Certainity

Impacted of zaprinast non-drug On Probiotics

Rank Probiotic Impact
species Bifidobacterium adolescentis Reduces
species Bifidobacterium longum Reduces
subspecies Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Reduces
subspecies Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Reduces

Bacteria Impacted by zaprinast non-drug

We extend modifiers to include items that changes the parent and child taxa. I.e. for a species, that would be the genus that is belongs to and the strains in the species.

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Taxonomy Rank Effect Citations Notation
Ruminococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Bifidobacterium genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Blautia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Enterocloster genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Clostridioides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Streptococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Coprococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Bacteroides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Roseburia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Clostridium genus Decreases 👪 Source Study Pathogen
unclassified Robinsoniella no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Fusobacterium no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Negativicoccus no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Eggerthellales order Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Ruminococcus bromii species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Blautia obeum species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Enterocloster bolteae species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Anaerofustis stercorihominis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Asaccharospora irregularis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Clostridioides difficile species Decreases 📓 Source Study Colitis
Negativicoccus sp. S5-A15 species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Paraprevotella clara species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Slackia sp. NATTS species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Streptococcus salivarius species Decreases 📓 Source Study Infectious bacteria
[Collinsella] massiliensis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Parvibacter caecicola species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Coprococcus comes species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bifidobacterium adolescentis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bacteroides ovatus species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Roseburia hominis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Clostridium perfringens species Decreases 📓 Source Study Food poisoning, gas gangrene
Coriobacterineae suborder Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suillum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia group superphylum Decreases ⚗️ Source Study

Impact of zaprinast non-drug on Conditions from US National Library of Medicine

A higher number indicates impact on more bacteria associated with the condition and confidence on the impact.

We have X bacteria high and Y low reported. We find that the modifier reduces some and increases other of these two groups. We just tally: X|reduces + Y|Increase = Positive   X|increases + Y|decrease = Negative.

Benefit Ratio:
Numbers above 0 have increasing positive effect.
Numbers below 0 have increasing negative effect.

Condition Positive Impact Negative Impact Benefit Ratio Impact
Acne 0.1 -0.1
ADHD 1 0 0
Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Glaucoma 0 0
Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 0 0.6 0
Allergies 0.8 0.8 0
Allergy to milk products 0.4 0.1 3
Alopecia (Hair Loss) 0.1 0.1
Alzheimer's disease 0.6 0.7 -0.17
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Motor Neuron 0.2 0.4 -1
Ankylosing spondylitis 0.3 0.4 -0.33
Anorexia Nervosa 0.5 -0.5
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 0.1 0.1
Asthma 0.1 0 0
Atherosclerosis 0.5 0 0
Atrial fibrillation 0.7 0.1 6
Autism 1 1.3 -0.3
Barrett esophagus cancer 0.1 -0.1
Bipolar Disorder 0.4 0.4 0
Brain Trauma 0.1 0 0
Cancer (General) 0.6 -0.6
Carcinoma 0.7 0.6 0.17
Celiac Disease 0.1 1.1 -10
Cerebral Palsy 0.2 0.5 -1.5
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 1.8 0.6 2
Chronic Kidney Disease 0 0.1 0
Chronic Lyme 0 0
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 0.2 0.1 1
Chronic Urticaria (Hives) 0.1 0.1
Coagulation / Micro clot triggering bacteria 0.1 0.6 -5
Colorectal Cancer 0.7 0.1 6
Constipation 0 0.1 0
Coronary artery disease 0.4 0.2 1
COVID-19 1.5 2 -0.33
Crohn's Disease 0.7 0.7 0
cystic fibrosis 0.2 -0.2
deep vein thrombosis 0.5 -0.5
Depression 1.4 1.3 0.08
Dermatomyositis 0.1 0.1 0
Eczema 0.3 -0.3
Endometriosis 0.4 0.4 0
Epilepsy 0.3 0.3 0
Fibromyalgia 0.1 0.2 -1
Functional constipation / chronic idiopathic constipation 1 0.2 4
gallstone disease (gsd) 0.5 0.1 4
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Gerd) including Barrett's esophagus 0.3 -0.3
Generalized anxiety disorder 0.1 0.6 -5
giant cell arteritis 0 0
Glioblastoma 0.1 -0.1
Gout 0 0
Graves' disease 0.1 0.1 0
Halitosis 0 0.1 0
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 0.3 0.1 2
Hidradenitis Suppurativa 0.1 0.1
High Histamine/low DAO 0 0.5 0
hypercholesterolemia (High Cholesterol) 0 0
hyperglycemia 0.3 -0.3
Hyperlipidemia (High Blood Fats) 0.1 0.1
hypersomnia 0.1 -0.1
hypertension (High Blood Pressure 0.6 0.9 -0.5
Hypothyroidism 0.3 -0.3
Hypoxia 0 0
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) 0.2 -0.2
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 0.3 1.9 -5.33
Insomnia 0.2 0 0
Intelligence 0.1 0.1
Intracranial aneurysms 0.5 0.5
Irritable Bowel Syndrome 0.5 0.2 1.5
Liver Cirrhosis 0.8 0.7 0.14
Long COVID 0.6 2.2 -2.67
Low bone mineral density 0.1 -0.1
Lung Cancer 0.5 -0.5
Mast Cell Issues / mastitis 0.1 0.5 -4
ME/CFS with IBS 0.3 0.5 -0.67
ME/CFS without IBS 0.2 0.1 1
Menopause 0.5 0.5
Metabolic Syndrome 0.8 1.4 -0.75
Mood Disorders 1.8 1.3 0.38
multiple chemical sensitivity [MCS] 0.2 0.1 1
Multiple Sclerosis 1.2 0.5 1.4
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) 0 0.6 0
neuropathic pain 0.2 -0.2
Neuropathy (all types) 0.2 0.2
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (nafld) Nonalcoholic 0.2 1.4 -6
NonCeliac Gluten Sensitivity 0.1 -0.1
Obesity 0.8 0.8 0
obsessive-compulsive disorder 1.3 0.3 3.33
Osteoarthritis 0.1 0.4 -3
Osteoporosis 0.4 0.1 3
pancreatic cancer 0.1 0.1
Parkinson's Disease 0.2 0.6 -2
Polycystic ovary syndrome 0.5 0.9 -0.8
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 0 0.2 0
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder 0.2 0.2
Psoriasis 0.7 0.1 6
rheumatoid arthritis (RA),Spondyloarthritis (SpA) 0.8 0.2 3
Rosacea 0.5 0 0
Schizophrenia 1.1 0.7 0.57
scoliosis 0 0.4 0
Sjögren syndrome 0.2 0.3 -0.5
Sleep Apnea 0.7 0.2 2.5
Slow gastric motility / Gastroparesis 0.4 0.1 3
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) 0.1 0.4 -3
Stress / posttraumatic stress disorder 0.2 0.2 0
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 0.2 0.6 -2
Tic Disorder 0.4 0.1 3
Tourette syndrome 0 0
Type 1 Diabetes 0.6 0.1 5
Type 2 Diabetes 0.8 0.9 -0.13
Ulcerative colitis 0.3 0.3 0
Unhealthy Ageing 0.5 0.2 1.5

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