🍽️ Theobromine (in food)

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  1. Stimulant Effect: Theobromine is a mild central nervous system stimulant. It is structurally similar to caffeine and shares some of its stimulating properties, although it is generally less potent.

  2. Vasodilation: Theobromine has been found to have vasodilatory effects, meaning it can relax blood vessels and increase blood flow. This effect may contribute to its potential cardiovascular benefits.

  3. Diuretic Effect: Like caffeine, theobromine has mild diuretic properties, which means it may increase urine production and promote fluid loss from the body. This effect can be beneficial for individuals with certain medical conditions, such as hypertension and edema.

  4. Cardiovascular Health: Some research suggests that moderate consumption of theobromine-containing foods, such as dark chocolate, may have cardiovascular benefits. These benefits may include improved endothelial function, reduced blood pressure, and decreased risk of heart disease. However, more studies are needed to confirm these effects and determine optimal intake levels.

  5. Respiratory Health: Theobromine has been investigated for its potential bronchodilator effects, particularly in the treatment of asthma. It is thought to work by relaxing the smooth muscles of the airways, similar to the mechanism of bronchodilator medications. However, more research is needed to establish its efficacy in this regard.

  6. Mood Enhancement: Some individuals report feeling more alert and mentally focused after consuming theobromine-containing foods, although the effect is typically milder than that of caffeine. Theobromine may also have mood-lifting properties, potentially contributing to feelings of well-being and pleasure associated with chocolate consumption.

  7. Toxicity: While theobromine is generally considered safe for most people when consumed in moderate amounts, excessive intake can lead to toxicity, especially in pets. Dogs, cats, and other animals metabolize theobromine more slowly than humans, making them more susceptible to its adverse effects. Symptoms of theobromine toxicity in pets may include vomiting, diarrhea, rapid heart rate, tremors, seizures, and even death in severe cases.

  8. Caffeine Sensitivity: Individuals who are sensitive to caffeine may also experience similar effects from theobromine, such as insomnia, jitteriness, and increased heart rate. People with caffeine sensitivity should consume theobromine-containing foods in moderation or avoid them altogether.

  9. Interactions: Theobromine may interact with certain medications, particularly those metabolized by the liver. Individuals taking medications should consult their healthcare provider or pharmacist before consuming large amounts of theobromine-containing foods to avoid potential interactions.


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Data Contradictions β€” Limits of Certainity

Impacted of Theobromine (in food) On Probiotics

Rank Probiotic Impact
species Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Reduces

Bacteria Impacted by Theobromine (in food)

We extend modifiers to include items that changes the parent and child taxa. I.e. for a species, that would be the genus that is belongs to and the strains in the species.


Taxonomy Rank Effect Citations Notation
Bacteroides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Bilophila genus Decreases 👪 Source Study High Level Cause Brain Fog(Cognitive impairment)
Lacticaseibacillus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Fusobacterium genus Decreases 👪 Source Study Periodontal disease, Lemierre syndrome, skin ulcers
Lacrimispora genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Thomasclavelia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Streptococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
unclassified Robinsoniella no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Fusobacterium no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Negativicoccus no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Eggerthellales order Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bilophila wadsworthia species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Fusobacterium nucleatum species Decreases 📓 Source Study Infectious bacteria
Lacrimispora saccharolytica species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Anaerofustis stercorihominis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Asaccharospora irregularis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Negativicoccus sp. S5-A15 species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Paraprevotella clara species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Slackia sp. NATTS species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
[Collinsella] massiliensis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Parvibacter caecicola species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Thomasclavelia ramosa species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Streptococcus parasanguinis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Streptococcus salivarius species Decreases 📓 Source Study Infectious bacteria
Coriobacterineae suborder Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia group superphylum Decreases ⚗️ Source Study

Impact of Theobromine (in food) on Conditions from US National Library of Medicine

A higher number indicates impact on more bacteria associated with the condition and confidence on the impact.

We have X bacteria high and Y low reported. We find that the modifier reduces some and increases other of these two groups. We just tally: X|reduces + Y|Increase = Positive   X|increases + Y|decrease = Negative.

Benefit Ratio:
Numbers above 0 have increasing positive effect.
Numbers below 0 have increasing negative effect.

Condition Positive Impact Negative Impact Benefit Ratio Impact
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 0.3 0.3
ADHD 0.1 0.1
Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 0.4 0.4
Allergy to milk products 0.4 0.4
Alzheimer's disease 1 0.9 0.11
Ankylosing spondylitis 0 0.5 0
Anorexia Nervosa 0.4 -0.4
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 0.8 0.3 1.67
Asthma 0.4 -0.4
Atherosclerosis 0.1 0.1
Atrial fibrillation 0.4 0.6 -0.5
Autism 0.5 0.7 -0.4
Barrett esophagus cancer 0.1 0 0
Bipolar Disorder 0.6 0.6
Brain Trauma 0.4 -0.4
Carcinoma 0.7 0.4 0.75
Celiac Disease 0.4 0.6 -0.5
Cerebral Palsy 0 0.4 0
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 0.7 0.4 0.75
Chronic Kidney Disease 0.4 0.4
Chronic Lyme 0.4 -0.4
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 0.3 0.3
Chronic Urticaria (Hives) 0 0
Coagulation / Micro clot triggering bacteria 0 0 0
Colorectal Cancer 0.7 0.7
Constipation 0.4 0.4
COVID-19 1.4 1.3 0.08
Crohn's Disease 1 0.5 1
cystic fibrosis 0.4 -0.4
deep vein thrombosis 0 0
Depression 1.3 0.8 0.63
Dermatomyositis 0 0
Eczema 0.1 -0.1
Endometriosis 0.4 0.4
Eosinophilic Esophagitis 0.1 0.1
Epilepsy 0.5 0.4 0.25
Fibromyalgia 0.1 0.4 -3
Functional constipation / chronic idiopathic constipation 0.4 0.4 0
gallstone disease (gsd) 0.1 -0.1
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Gerd) including Barrett's esophagus 0.1 0 0
Generalized anxiety disorder 0.1 0.4 -3
Glioblastoma 0 0
Graves' disease 0.4 0.4
Halitosis 0.5 0 0
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 0.4 0.6 -0.5
Hidradenitis Suppurativa 0.4 0.4
Histamine Issues,Mast Cell Issue, DAO Insufficiency 0.4 0.4
hyperglycemia 0.4 -0.4
hypersomnia 0.3 -0.3
hypertension (High Blood Pressure 0.4 0.7 -0.75
Hypoxia 0.4 0.4
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) 0.8 -0.8
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 0.5 0.4 0.25
Insomnia 0.4 0.4 0
Intracranial aneurysms 0.4 0.4
Irritable Bowel Syndrome 1.1 0.4 1.75
Liver Cirrhosis 0.8 0.7 0.14
Long COVID 1.4 1.5 -0.07
ME/CFS with IBS 0 0.4 0
ME/CFS without IBS 0.2 0.4 -1
Metabolic Syndrome 0.8 0.8 0
Mood Disorders 1.6 0.8 1
multiple chemical sensitivity [MCS] 0.1 0.1
Multiple Sclerosis 0.5 0.4 0.25
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) 0.1 0.1
Neuropathy (all types) 0 0
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (nafld) Nonalcoholic 0 0.4 0
Obesity 0.7 0.9 -0.29
obsessive-compulsive disorder 0.4 0.4 0
Osteoarthritis 0.5 0.5
Osteoporosis 0.4 0.4 0
pancreatic cancer 0 0
Parkinson's Disease 0.3 0.1 2
Polycystic ovary syndrome 0.4 0.4
Psoriasis 0 0.4 0
rheumatoid arthritis (RA),Spondyloarthritis (SpA) 0.9 0.5 0.8
Schizophrenia 0.6 0.6
scoliosis 0.3 -0.3
Sjögren syndrome 0 0.4 0
Sleep Apnea 0.1 0.4 -3
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) 0.1 0.1
Stress / posttraumatic stress disorder 0.5 0.4 0.25
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 0.8 0.8
Tourette syndrome 0.4 -0.4
Type 1 Diabetes 0.6 0 0
Type 2 Diabetes 0.8 1.3 -0.63
Ulcerative colitis 0.6 0.6 0
Unhealthy Ageing 1 1

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