🍽️ Arbutin (polyphenol)

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  1. Skin Lightening: Arbutin is well-known for its skin-lightening properties. It works by inhibiting tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in the production of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. By inhibiting tyrosinase activity, arbutin can help to reduce the production of melanin in the skin, leading to a lighter complexion and fading of hyperpigmentation, such as age spots, sun spots, and melasma.

  2. Anti-inflammatory: Arbutin has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, which may be beneficial for various skin conditions characterized by inflammation, such as acne, eczema, and rosacea. By reducing inflammation, arbutin may help to alleviate redness, swelling, and irritation associated with these skin conditions.

  3. Antioxidant: Arbutin exhibits antioxidant activity, meaning it can neutralize harmful free radicals in the body. Free radicals are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and various diseases. By scavenging free radicals, arbutin may help to protect cells from oxidative stress and reduce the risk of oxidative damage to the skin and other tissues.

  4. Hyperpigmentation Disorders: Arbutin has been studied for its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders, such as melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, and age-related skin discolorations. Its ability to inhibit melanin production makes it a promising ingredient in skincare formulations designed to address these conditions.

  5. Sun Protection: Some research suggests that arbutin may have photoprotective properties, meaning it may help to protect the skin from the damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. While arbutin itself is not a substitute for sunscreen, it may complement sun protection measures by reducing the risk of UV-induced skin damage and premature aging.

  6. Wound Healing: Arbutin has been investigated for its potential role in promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties may help to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress at the site of injury, facilitating the healing process and minimizing scarring.

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Data Contradictions β€” Limits of Certainity

Impacted of Arbutin (polyphenol) On Probiotics

Rank Probiotic Impact
species Bifidobacterium longum Reduces
species Escherichia coli Reduces
species Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Reduces
subspecies Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Reduces
subspecies Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Reduces

Bacteria Impacted by Arbutin (polyphenol)

We extend modifiers to include items that changes the parent and child taxa. I.e. for a species, that would be the genus that is belongs to and the strains in the species.

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Taxonomy Rank Effect Citations Notation
Streptococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Bifidobacterium genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Mediterraneibacter genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Fusobacterium genus Decreases 👪 Source Study Periodontal disease, Lemierre syndrome, skin ulcers
Thomasclavelia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Escherichia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
unclassified Robinsoniella no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Fusobacterium no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Negativicoccus no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Escherichia coli O80:H26 no rank Decreases 👶 Source Study
Eggerthellales order Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Escherichia coli O145 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O157 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O26 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O43 serogroup Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O1:H42 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O104:H4 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O121:H19 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O127:H6 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O139:H28 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O157:H7 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study bloody diarrhea
Escherichia coli O44:H18 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O55:H7 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O6:H16 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Escherichia coli O7:K1 serotype Decreases 👶 Source Study
Streptococcus parasanguinis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei species Decreases 📓 Source Study
[Ruminococcus] gnavus species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Fusobacterium nucleatum species Decreases 📓 Source Study Infectious bacteria
Thomasclavelia ramosa species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Anaerofustis stercorihominis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Asaccharospora irregularis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Escherichia coli species Decreases 📓 Source Study Diarrheal disease in children and travelers, Foodborne diarrhea outbreaks, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome
Negativicoccus sp. S5-A15 species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Paraprevotella clara species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Slackia sp. NATTS species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
[Collinsella] massiliensis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Parvibacter caecicola species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Coriobacterineae suborder Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suillum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia group superphylum Decreases ⚗️ Source Study

Impact of Arbutin (polyphenol) on Conditions from US National Library of Medicine

A higher number indicates impact on more bacteria associated with the condition and confidence on the impact.

We have X bacteria high and Y low reported. We find that the modifier reduces some and increases other of these two groups. We just tally: X|reduces + Y|Increase = Positive   X|increases + Y|decrease = Negative.

Benefit Ratio:
Numbers above 0 have increasing positive effect.
Numbers below 0 have increasing negative effect.

Condition Positive Impact Negative Impact Benefit Ratio Impact
Acne 0.2 -0.2
ADHD 0.7 0.7
Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 0.4 0.6 -0.5
Allergies 0.6 0.6
Allergy to milk products 0.2 0.3 -0.5
Alzheimer's disease 0.7 0.2 2.5
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Motor Neuron 0.3 0.2 0.5
Ankylosing spondylitis 0.7 0.4 0.75
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 0.4 0.4
Asthma 0.2 0.2
Atherosclerosis 0.3 0.3
Atrial fibrillation 0.4 0.3 0.33
Autism 1 0.9 0.11
Barrett esophagus cancer 0.1 0.2 -1
benign prostatic hyperplasia 0.1 0.1
Bipolar Disorder 0.1 0.1
Brain Trauma 0.2 0.2
Carcinoma 0.5 0.2 1.5
Celiac Disease 0.4 0.6 -0.5
Cerebral Palsy 0.4 0.4
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 1 0.4 1.5
Chronic Kidney Disease 0.4 0.4
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 0.9 0.9
Chronic Urticaria (Hives) 0.5 0.5
Coagulation / Micro clot triggering bacteria 0.5 0.2 1.5
Colorectal Cancer 0.9 0.2 3.5
Constipation 0.1 0.1
Coronary artery disease 0.3 0.3
COVID-19 1.5 0.7 1.14
Crohn's Disease 1.2 0.3 3
cystic fibrosis 0.3 0.2 0.5
deep vein thrombosis 0.3 0.2 0.5
Depression 2.2 1.3 0.69
Dermatomyositis 0.2 0.2 0
Eczema 0.4 0.4 0
Endometriosis 0.7 0.7
Eosinophilic Esophagitis 0.1 0.1
Epilepsy 0.7 0.2 2.5
Fibromyalgia 0.3 0.2 0.5
Functional constipation / chronic idiopathic constipation 0.9 0.2 3.5
gallstone disease (gsd) 0.1 0.3 -2
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Gerd) including Barrett's esophagus 0.1 0.2 -1
Generalized anxiety disorder 0.7 0.6 0.17
Glioblastoma 0.2 -0.2
Graves' disease 0.2 0.2
Halitosis 0.1 0.2 -1
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 0.2 0.2 0
Hidradenitis Suppurativa 0.4 0.4
Histamine Issues,Mast Cell Issue, DAO Insufficiency 0.6 0.1 5
hyperglycemia 0.1 0.2 -1
Hyperlipidemia (High Blood Fats) 0.2 0.2
hypertension (High Blood Pressure 0.5 0.6 -0.2
Hypothyroidism 0.2 -0.2
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) 0.5 -0.5
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1.3 0.6 1.17
Insomnia 0.2 0.2
Irritable Bowel Syndrome 0.5 0.2 1.5
Liver Cirrhosis 0.7 0.4 0.75
Long COVID 1.2 0.7 0.71
Lung Cancer 0.1 0.1
ME/CFS with IBS 0.2 0.2 0
ME/CFS without IBS 0.7 0.2 2.5
Menopause 0.4 0.4
Metabolic Syndrome 1.2 1.1 0.09
Mood Disorders 2.2 1.3 0.69
multiple chemical sensitivity [MCS] 0.2 0.2
Multiple Sclerosis 1.4 0.2 6
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) 0.5 0.2 1.5
Neuropathy (all types) 0.2 0.1 1
neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS, PANS) 0.2 0.2
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (nafld) Nonalcoholic 0.3 0.6 -1
NonCeliac Gluten Sensitivity 0.2 -0.2
Obesity 0.8 0.7 0.14
obsessive-compulsive disorder 0.5 0.5 0
Osteoarthritis 0.9 0.9
Osteoporosis 0.1 0.1
pancreatic cancer 0.2 0.2
Parkinson's Disease 0.6 0.5 0.2
Polycystic ovary syndrome 0.1 0.2 -1
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 0.2 -0.2
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder 0.2 0.2
Psoriasis 0.6 0.6
rheumatoid arthritis (RA),Spondyloarthritis (SpA) 1.1 0.3 2.67
Rosacea 0.2 0.2
Schizophrenia 0.6 0.2 2
Sjögren syndrome 0.3 0.2 0.5
Sleep Apnea 0.3 0.3
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) 0.6 0.4 0.5
Stress / posttraumatic stress disorder 0.5 0.2 1.5
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 0.8 0.2 3
Tic Disorder 0.2 -0.2
Type 1 Diabetes 0.1 0.2 -1
Type 2 Diabetes 1.2 0.9 0.33
Ulcerative colitis 0.9 0.2 3.5
Unhealthy Ageing 0.9 0.2 3.5

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